Unit 9 Good news!

Vocabulary: practise with quizlet

Grammar: Past Perfect

We use the Past Perfect to talk about something that happened before something else in the past

The event A happened before event B


Event A Event B
John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
Event A Event B
I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
Event B Event A
When they arrived we had already started cooking.
Event B Event A
He was very tired because he hadn’t slept well.

With the past perfect simple we use the following expressions of time and adverbs.

Simple past     Before / by the time/when/ until

I had cleaned the car before I went to the party.

By the time he was five, he had read many books.

When I arrived, he had already eaten

Until I went to India, I hadn’t eaten curry rice.

Past Perfect Simple       after / as soon as/already

He ate an ice cream after he had finished lunch

As soon as I had got up, I went to school.

I had already seen him when he said hello.

Exercise one

Exercise two  choose Past Perfect or Simple Past

Exercise three    exercise four  practise it with a text, the pilgrins

exercise five  practise it with a text, the visitor


Reported Speech

Reported Speech is used to repeat what another person said.

Direct speech: He told me ” I’m worried”

Reported speech: He told me (that) he was worried

When the verb introducing the reported speech is in the past, the following changes occur:

Present simple   to   Past simple

Present continuous to past continuous

Present perfect  to past perfect

Past simple  to past perfect

will  to would

can  to could

must/have to    to had to

may  to might

exercise one     exercise two      exercise 3 with backshift

Reporting verbs

say and tell  . There are other reporting verbs that we can use apart from say and tell. These include: admit, ask, claim, confirm, deny, insist  and so on……

he said     He say that she was coming.

he told + person or an object pronoun. He told me that she was coming.

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