- Learn vocabulary related to verb patterns,Life story
- Past Simple, Past continuous
- Past Perfect
- Used to, to be used to, to get used to
- Time expressions
– Usually you miss something which happens, such as an event, a train leaving, or an opportunity, or someone.
– Usually you lose a thing, an object or a game.
Use of Past Perfect
- action taking place before a certain time in the past
(putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration)Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack.
Before(abans) I had studied before I went to the party.
by the time( quan) By the time he was 19, he had driven lots of cars.
when (quan) John had finished his homework when I arrived
until( fins que) Until I went to Italy, I hadn’t eaten real Italian food.
With the Past Perfect we normally use the following time expressions
after (després) He ate an ice-cream after he had finished lunch
As soon as( tan aviat com)
Time Expressions in the Past Perfect Simple
The time expressions already, for, since, and yet may be used in the past perfect simple, as they are in the present perfect simple. Remember the following rules for using other time expressions:
- Use after, as soon as, the moment that, until ,before using the past perfect simple.
Ex:After she had moved out, I found her notes./ I didn’t say anything until shehad finished
- Use before, when, by the time before the past simple:
Before I knew it, she had run out the door. / By the time he phoned her, she had found someone new.
The past perfect simple is used to describe one action that happened before another action in the past.
In many cases a complete sentence is written in two parts with two different tenses:
- The past perfect simple, to refer to the action that happened first or earlier
- The past simple to refer to the action that happened second or later
If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when “before” or “after” is used in the sentence. The words “before” and “after” actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.
- She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
- She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.
- She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
- She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct
Used to shows that:
- a particular thing always happened or was true in the past.
- But it no longer happens or is no longer true now:
- David used to live in Madrid.
- She used to exercise every morning, but since she had that terrible accident she doesn’t exercise anymore.
- Why don’t you come and see me like you used to?
Forms of used to
Here are the interrogative, affirmative and negative forms of used to
- Did you use to exercise regularly?
- Yes, I used to go jogging nearly everyday.
- No, I didn’t use to exercise on a regular basis.
Used to, be used to, get used to
1.Used to shows that a particular thing always happened or was true in the past (see examples above)
2.Be used to is used to say that something is normal, not unusual.
- I‘m used to living alone.
- Don’t worry, John is used to driving for long hours. He has worked as a professional driver for 20 years.
3.Get used shows that something is in the process of becoming normal.
- He doesn’t like that small town, but he‘ll get used to it.
- She found the heels too high, but she got used to them.
- Since the divorce, she has become very sad. But I think she‘ll get used to her new life.
- I got used to living in Canada in spite of the cold weather.
- Get used toand be used to are followed by either a noun or a gerund.
|Get used to + noun||Get used to + gerund (verb+ing)|
|I got used to the noise
I‘m used to the cold weather
|I got used to waking up early
I‘m used to working late at night