Unit 2 The world of work

Vocabulary:   practise the vocabulary with quizlet

Skills and abilities

adjectives suffixes  to practise them

Adjective suffixes

suffix

examples of adjectives

-able/-ible

drinkable, portable, flexible

-al

brutal, formal, postal

-en

broken, golden, wooden

-ese

Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese

-ful

forgetful, helpful, useful

-i

Iraqi, Pakistani, Yemeni

-ic

classic, Islamic, poetic

-ish

British, childish, Spanish

-ive

active, passive, productive

-ian

Canadian, Malaysian, Peruvian

-less

homeless, hopeless, useless

-ly

daily, monthly, yearly

-ous

cautious, famous, nervous

-y

cloudy, rainy, windy

Grammar

Present perfect vs present perfect continuous

 

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Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect continuous.

Often there is very little difference between the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous. In many cases, both are equally acceptable.

Present perfect simple= I’ve learnt ten new Italian verbs = I’ve learnt all ten. (finished, completed) The result is important

Present perfect continuous= I’ve been learning ten new Italian verbs= I may still be learning some of them. (continuing the action).The activity, the action is important

To emphasize the action, we use the continuous form.

We’ve been working really hard for a couple of months.

She’s been having a hard time.

When an action is finished and you can see the results, use the continuous form.

The phone bill is enormous. You’ve been calling your boyfriend in Australia, haven’t you?

You’re red in the face. Have you been running?

The present perfect continuous can be used to emphasise the length of time that has passed.

The present perfect simple is generally neutral:

They’ve been waiting for hours! (This emphasises the length of time).

They’ve waited for hours. (This doesn’t emphasise the length of time).

The present perfect continuous can be used to emphasise that something is temporary:

She’s been running a lot recently. (She doesn’t usually do this).

Usually I study at home, but I’ve been studying in the library for the last week.

Remember : verbs that describe states, such as be,have,know,understand, want are not generally used in continuous forms.

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To emphasize the result of the action, we use the simple form.

I’ve made fifteen phone calls this morning.

He’s written a very good report.

The present perfect simple is often used when we’re talking about how much or how many. This isn’t possible with the present perfect continuous:

  • She’s drunk three cups of coffee this morning.
  • She’s drunk at least a litre of coffee today

To summarize: The choice of the present perfect simple rather than present perfect continous suggests that the activity has been completed recently, rather than that it might still be continuing.

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

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