Unit 3

Vocabulary: related to crime and Programmes on TV

Grammar: Past Perfect.

contrast connectors

Vocabulary:

to practice the vocabulary

CRIMES

1. Murder 2. Kidnapping
Unlawfully and deliberately
killing someone

2. Kidnapping

Taking somebody by and demanding money or

conditions to free that person

3. Burglary
To enter a building, often while no one
is in it, and steal money or objects
4. Mugging
To take something by force
from someone, often in the
street
5. Pickpocketing
To steal from someone’s pocket
etc, without them realizing

6. Arson
To set fire to a
building illegally.

7. Rape
To violently attack a person  sexually.
8. Hijacking
To use force to take control of 9. Fraud
a plane, ship, train, etc. To deceive or cheat
someone to get money

10. Theft
Stealing-usually secretly
without violence
11. Manslaughter

and Killing someone by accident  through a careless or dangerous
act
12. Smuggling
To bring illegal goods, like drugs,
into a country or to bring goods into
a country without paying taxes.

13. Shoplifting

To steal things while pretending to shop

Legal vocabulary

Trial – a formal meeting in a court in which evidence about crimes, disagreements, etc., is presented to a judge and often a jury so that decisions can be made according to the law.
Ex: “He was put on trial for the attempted murder of his girlfriend”

Case – a situation that is being investigated or managed by someone (such as a police officer or social worker) in an official way.
Ex: “Case closed, the crime has been solved”

Evidence – something which shows that something else exists or is true.
Ex: “We found no evidence that Erin was the culprit”

Proof – something which shows that something else is true or correct.
Ex: “She wanted proof that the burglar had been caught”

Judge – to form an opinion about (something or someone) after careful thought.
Ex: “Judge Judy is a very popular show about a female judge”

Jury – a group of people who are members of the public and are chosen to make a decision in a legal case.
Ex: “The jury decided the man was innocent”

Exercise

To make sure you have understood the new vocabulary, fill in the gaps in the exercise bellow. Remember to put the verbs in the correct verb tenses!

1. On Monday an armed gang __________ the school. They ___________ all the laptops.
2. My luggage _________ at the airport. I think it was ___________ by the blond man in a pink jacket.
3. Every year large numbers of banks __________.
4. Ali __________ of the opportunity to become class president.

Use of Past Perfect

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
    (putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration)Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack.

With the Past Perfect we normally use the following time expressions.

Simple past

Before(abans)               I had studied before I went to the party.

by the time( quan)       By the time he was 19, he had driven  lots of cars.

when (quan)                   John had finished his homework when I arrived

until( fins que)              Until I went to Italy, I hadn’t eaten real Italian food.

after (després)         He ate an ice-cream after he had finished lunch

As soon as( tan aviat com)

after (despres)

Useful Tip

Time Expressions in the Past Perfect Simple

The time expressions already, for, since, and yet may be used in the past perfect simple, as they are in the present perfect simple. Remember the following rules for using other time expressions:

  • Use after, as soon as, the moment that, until before using the past perfect simple.
    Ex:After she had moved out, I found her notes./ I didn’t say anything until shehad finished
  • Use before, when, by the time before the past simple:
    Before I knew it, she had run out the door. / By the time he phoned her, she had found someone new.

The past perfect simple is used to describe one action that happened before another action in the past.

In many cases a complete sentence is written in two parts with two different tenses:

  1. The past perfect simple, to refer to the action that happened first or earlier
  2. The past simple to refer to the action that happened second or later

If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when “before” or “after” is used in the sentence. The words “before” and “after” actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

Examples:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Examples:

  • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
  • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

exercise 1

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