Unit 6 Cool Creatures

Vocabulary:

Reporting verbs / adjectives

Grammar:

Reported Speech

Connectors of Cause and effect

Idioms.

to eat like a horse= a lot

have a memory like an elephant= never forget

To be a big fish= to be a very important

A little bird told me= I know a secret from somebody who wants to be anonymous

To drink like a fish= to drink a lot

It’s easy as pie= It is very easy

I’ll put my thinking cap= I’ll think about it.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away= Eat an apple every day and you will be healthy.

It is raining cats and dogs= It is raining  a lot.

It costs an arm and a leg = It is very expensive

Pulling your leg= to play a joke on someone

Let the cat out of the bag=to share a secret that it is not supposed to be shared

Wear your heart on your sleeve=to openly and freely open your emotions

to bring home the bacon= to earn the money for your family

Something smells fishy=notice something suspicious

Reported Speech

Commands, orders, requests   with  to/ not to

example   ” bring the book here“

She said to bring the book there

“don’t talk  loudly”

She said not to talk loudly

Statements- we have to change :

SUBJECT/ VERB/ PARTICLES,POSSESSIVE

Shifting of expressions of time

this (evening) that (evening)
today/this day that day
these (days) those (days)
now then
(a week) ago (a week) before
last weekend the weekend before / the previous weekend
here there
next (week) the following (week)
tomorrow the next/following day

Verbs changing

Verbs: direct speech        reported speech

present…..  changes into …    past

will ….. ……. changes into….   would

can          changes into    could

must      changes into    had to

past simple changes into Past perfect    Had + V participle

Exemple: I’m coming tomorrow

She said she was coming the next day

Questions:  Two types

One with question word – we write the question word and the sentence with no question,Subject first, we don’t include do or did

“Where do you live”? she said where I lived

two with no question word – then we write if or whether

“do you play football?” she asked if I played football

Reporting verbs

Form and meaning

We use reporting verbs to report what someone said more accurately than using say and tell.

Verb + infinitive

agree, decide, offer, promise, refuse, threaten

  • They agreed to meet on Friday.
  • He refused to take his coat off.

Verb + object + infinitive

advise, encourage, invite, remind, warn

  • Tom advised me to go home early.
  • She reminded me to telephone my mother.

Verb + gerund

deny, recommend, suggest

  • They recommended taking the bus.
  • She suggested meeting a little earlier.

Verb + object + preposition (+ gerund)

accuse, blame, congratulate

  • He accused me of taking the money.
  • They congratulated me on passing all my exams.

Verb + preposition + gerund

apologise, insist

  • They apologised for not coming.
  • He insisted on having dinner.

Verb + (that) + subject + verb

admit, agree, decide, deny, explain, insist, promise, recommend, suggest

tell, say,ask, apologise, offer, agree,deny, refuse…………………………………….

exemple:

“You are right”  She agreed

“No, I won’t do it” She refused to do it

1 “I didn’t do it,” she said.
She ________________ doing it.
2 “Have lunch with me,” she said.
She ________________ me to have lunch with her.
3 “Why don’t you buy one?” said Tom.
Tom ________________ I buy one.
4 “I promise I’ll take you to Prague,” said Mary.
Mary ________________ to take me to Prague.
5 “I hope Andy phones tonight,” said Clare.
Clare ________________ Andy would phone that night.
6 “Please, please don’t tell anyone!” he said.
He ________________ me not to tell anyone.
7 “I won’t do it,” he said.
He ________________ to do it.
8 “You should have lessons,” she said.
She ________________ me to have lessons.
9 “We really must go with you,” they said.
They ________________ on going with me.
10 “Don’t forget to phone Granny,” said Mum.
Mum ________________ me to phone Granny.
11 “If you wear my T-shirt again, I’ll pinch you very hard,” said Maggy.
Maggie ________________ to pinch me very hard if I wore her T-shirt again.
12 “Don’t fly kites near electric overhead cables,” said my father.
My father ________________ me not to fly kites near electric overhead cables.

To know more about reporting verbs we can watch this video

To practice

exercises on reported speech questions one two

exercises on reported speech statements one two

exercises on reported speech commands  one (positive)  two (negative)  three (mixed) four

exercises mixed   one two

exercises with special  reporting verbs  one two  three  four   five  six

Connectors of Cause and Effect

Connectors such as Because/ because of/ since/as/due to and as a result of

show the cause of something.

Connectors such as as a result/so and therefore 

show the effect of something.

As and since can both be used to refer to the reason for something.

often come at the beginning of sentences. They are used in the same way.

  • As he wasn’t ready, we went without him.
  • Since she wanted to pass her exam, she decided to study well.

They are relatively formal. In an informal style, the same ideas are often expressed with so.

  • He wasn’t ready, so we went without him.
  • She wanted to pass, so she decided to study well.

Because and because of

Because

because subject verb  
because he felt ill, he didn’t go to the party

Because of

because of noun phrase or verb-ing  
because of his illness he didn’t go to the party
because of feeling ill

Differences from because and because of

practice all the connectors

exercises multiple choice

Practice the connectors of cause and effect.

1-Choose the correct answers:

1. As / As a result it was such a beautiful day, we decided to have a picnic.
2. It was his birthday because / so we decided to buy him a present.
3. As a result / Since all the seats on the train were taken, we had to stand.
4. The banks were closed and as a result / because we couldn’t get any money.
5. I didn’t find the book very interesting and so / as I didn’t finish it.
6. We couldn’t drive across the bridge as a result / because it was closed.
7. She had the best qualifications and she so / therefore got the job.
8. I haven’t got much money as / so I can’t afford a new car.

exercise 2

First practice in the computer this exercice, click here

1- Fill the gaps using the verbs in the box. Use each verb once only.

advise hope promise suggest
beg insist remind threaten
deny invite refuse warn
1 “I didn’t do it,” she said.
She ________________ doing it.
2 “Have lunch with me,” she said.
She ________________ me to have lunch with her.
3 “Why don’t you buy one?” said Tom.
Tom ________________ I buy one.
4 “I promise I’ll take you to Prague,” said Mary.
Mary ________________ to take me to Prague.
5 “I hope Andy phones tonight,” said Clare.
Clare ________________ Andy would phone that night.
6 “Please, please don’t tell anyone!” he said.
He ________________ me not to tell anyone.
7 “I won’t do it,” he said.
He ________________ to do it.
8 “You should have lessons,” she said.
She ________________ me to have lessons.
9 “We really must go with you,” they said.
They ________________ on going with me.
10 “Don’t forget to phone Granny,” said Mum.
Mum ________________ me to phone Granny.
11 “If you wear my T-shirt again, I’ll pinch you very hard,” said Maggy.
Maggie ________________ to pinch me very hard if I wore her T-shirt again.
12 “Don’t fly kites near electric overhead cables,” said my father.
My father ________________ me not to fly kites near electric overhead cables.

2-Choose the correct reporting verb from this list and finish the reported speech for each example.

Told
Said
Advised
Warned
Suggested
Asked
Offered
Ordered

1. “I’d go and see a doctor if I were you,” Julie said to me.
Julie  me to go and see a doctor.

2. “Can you come and help me with this box?”
John  me to help him with the box.

3. “This is an exam Mr. Jenkins!! Shut up now!!!”
The headmaster  Mr. Jenkins to shut up.

4. “That road is very dangerous so just be very careful!”
His mother  him that the road was very dangerous and to be careful.

5. “Liverpool won the match last night.”
The journalist  that Liverpool had won the match the previous night.

6. “Why don’t we go and see that new film at the cinema.”
Bill  going to see the new film at the cinema.

7. “I can come and look after the children tomorrow night.”
Jane  to come and look after the children the following day.

8. “The lesson starts at six o’clock in the evening.”
The teacher  us that the lesson started at six in the evening.

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