We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something.
Relative pronouns :Who/whom/which/that/whose/where/when
We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
Or we can use that for people or things.Where for places and whose for possession
We use relative pronouns:
• after a noun, to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about:
the house that Jack built
the woman who discovered radium
an eight-year-old boy who attempted to rob a sweet shop
• to tell us more about a person or thing:
My mother, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
We had fish and chips, which is my favourite meal.
We use whose as the possessive form of who:
This is George, whose brother went to school with me.
We sometimes use whom as the object of a verb or preposition:
This is George, whom you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, with whom I went to school.
But nowadays we normally use who:
This is George, who you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, who I went to school with.
Video about defining and non-defining clause
- Defining clauses give us important information, tell which noun we are talking about.
When the relative pronouns who, which, that or where refer to the OBJECT of the relative clause, we can omit them.
- non-defining clauses gives us extra information about something. We don’t need this information to understand the sentence.
and we use commas for the extra information, and we can’t never omit the pronoun and we can’t use that either.
Subject and object
Subject questions do not need an auxiliary verb
Who did the exercises?
who gave you this idea?
Object questions are followed by the normal word order for a question: auxiliary +subject + infinitive or the subject between the two verbs.
What does she look like?
what did she do yesterday?
what have you done?