Connectors of cause and effect



Conjunctions followed by a complete sentence:

Because: it usually follows the main clause: Everybody likes her because she’s very kind and friendly.

As and since are very similar. As is less formal than since. They are used when the reason is well known. The clauses that start with these words often begin the sentence:
As I was very tired, I went to bed early.
 Since you are not interested, I won’t tell you about it.
(As and since can also be used as time connectors).


Connectors followed by a noun, a noun phrase, a pronoun or a gerund:

 Because ofI couldn’t play tennis because of the heavy rain.

Due to and owing to are considered by many speakers as exact equivalents, but this is not so, because due to is adjectival (it follows a noun or pronoun), whereas owing to is adverbial (it complements a verb). Compare these examples:
The game was cancelled owing to torrential rain. 
The cancellation of the game was due to torrential rain..
Owing to is interchangeable with because ofThe game was cancelled because of torrential rain.

As a result of : As a result of the rise in the number of accidents, the government has decided to lower the speed limit.



Therefore (formal, used mainly in written English): Our teacher was ill. Therefore, we had to put off the exam.

As a resultThere has been a rise in the number of accidents. As a result, the government has decided to lower the speed limit 

Note: When you start a sentence with these words, you need to put a comma after them.


 So (less formal): There was nothing on TV, so I decided to go to bed.

That’s whyCold temperatures kill mosquitos, that’s why you won’t see them in winter.

For this reason: People helped. For this reason, the children survived.

Consequently (used especially in written English): People helped. Consequently, the children survived.


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